FAQs and Useful Tools
We have put together a list of frequently asked questions and useful tools related to transcribing records. These are based on discussion threads in the NfN discussion forums (linked at the bottom). Please take a look, and let us know if there are any questions we missed or useful tools that you can suggest. These will eventually go on a page of the Notes from Nature website.
NOTE: The herbarium interface (SERNEC), now has it’s own FAQ. It can be found here: https://blog.notesfromnature.org/2015/04/14/updated-faq-and-useful-tools-herbarium-interface/
We really appreciate your input and all that you do for Notes from Nature. Thank You!
Common issues or questions that you may encounter while transcribing Notes from Nature records:
1.) Interpretation: In general, you should minimize interpretation of open-ended fields and enter information verbatim. This way, we can better achieve consensus when checking multiple records against one another (see below, on that process). However, some discretion would be nice. Here are examples:
Interpretation that you should make: Simple spacing errors (e.g. “3miN. of Oakland” should be “3 mi N. of Oakland”)
Interpretation you should leave to us: Don’t interpret abbreviations, we’ll sort that out. (e.g. “Convict Lk.” )
2.) Not in English: Transcribe exactly as written. Match label content to transcription fields as best as you can.
3.) Abbreviations: Transcribe exactly as written.
4.) Spelling mistakes: Transcribe exactly as written, unless you have looked it up and are absolutely certain of a simple spelling mistake. In this case, you can enter the correct spelling.
5.) Problem records: If you come across a problem record that may need to be addressed by a scientist, like a faulty image or a record with illegible handwriting, you can flag the record by commenting on it (e.g. with the hashtag #error) and indicate what is in error.
6.) Provinces: Provinces go in the Location field (e.g. Coastal Plain Province, Piedmont Province).
7.) Capitalization: Sometimes information may be in all capital letters on the labels. Unless this is an abbreviation, you should capitalize only the first letter of every word in your transcription (e.g. “COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE” should be “Coastal Plain Province”).
8.) Many collectors: In many cases, collectors may be listed on different lines of the label with no punctuation separating them. In your transcription, please separate the collectors with commas.
9.) Missing information: What should you do when there is no information available for a field? When information is not given on the label, you should leave the field blank (in the case of open-ended fields) or select “Unknown” or “Not Shown” in the drop-down lists.
10.) Inconsistent collector names: You will often find several variations of the same collector name (e.g. “R. Kral” or “R.Kral”, “RWG” or “R.W.Garrison”). Use similar discretion when transcribing these variations as in the localities.
Interpretation that you should make: Simple spacing errors (e.g. “R.Kral” should be “R. Kral”)
Interpretation you should leave to us: Don’t interpret abbreviations, we’ll sort that out. (e.g. “RWG” should remain “RWG”)
11.) Many scientific names: For Calbug, you do not need to enter the species name (we have this info already), but if there is a scientific name that is different from what is listed in the record, put it into the “Other Notes” field. These could be old names, or plant host names.
For SERNEC Herbarium specimens, copy only the most recent name. This can be determined based on the date that appears on the ‘annotation label.’ If you do not see a date then enter the name that appears on the primary label.
12.) Variations and subspecies (SERNEC): Record the subspecies, but omit the scientific author’s name. So “Cyperus odoratus var. squarrosus (Britton) Jones, Wipff & Carter” becomes “Cyperus odoratus var. squarrosus”. “Echinodorus cordifolius (Linnaeus) Grisebach ssp. cordifolius” becomes “Echinodorus cordifolius ssp. cordifolius”.
13.) Scientific name (SERNEC): Provide the most recent name, whether it is a species name (a two-word combination of the genus and what is called the “specific epithet” in botanical nomenclature) or a one-word name that is at a higher taxonomic rank (e.g., just the genus or family name). Names at higher taxonomic ranks than species are used when a more precise identification has not been made. The species name should typically take the form of a genus name that begins with a capital letter and a specific epithet that begins with a lowercase letter. If any of the names are given in all capitals, such as “CYPERUS ODORATUS”, the name should be entered using the typical convention, “Cyperus odoratus” in this case.
14.) Latitude and Longitude: How do you enter latitude and longitude values, and where do these values go? Enter exactly as written, you can find symbols in Word or by searching online (e.g. 33° 62’ 22” N 116° 41’ 42” W). You can also produce the degree symbol ° using key combinations (alt + 0 on a mac; alt + 0176 on a PC, with the key pad on the right side of your keyboard). This information should go into the “Location” or “Locality” field, depending on the project you are working on.
15.) Special Characters: What should you type when there is a special character in a text string, such as a degree symbol or language-specific characters? You can do a google search for the symbol or copy and paste it from Microsoft Word symbols. There are also key combinations for common symbols. As mentioned above, you can produce the degree symbol ° using key combinations (alt + 0 on a mac; alt + 0176 on a PC, with the key pad on the right side of your keyboard).
16.) Elevation: Enter elevation verbatim into the “Other Notes” field for Calbug and the “Habitat and Description” field for SERNEC Herbarium records.
17.) County: If the county is not given on the label, please find the appropriate county using google search. However, if there are multiple potential counties for a locality, please leave the county field blank.
18.) Checking your transcription: You can use the link to the left of the “Finish Record” button (e.g. “1/9” or “9/9”) to check the information that you entered. Just click on any of the fields to make any necessary edits to your transcription.
19.) When is a record finished?: These blog posts describe the data checking process that uses 4 transcriptions of the same record to derive a consensus.
Some Useful Tools (discovered by NfN users)
Counties and Cities: Good tools for finding counties etc. are lists on wikipedia, there are lists of municipalities in each state of the USA (there are also similar lists for others). For example, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_municipalities_in_Florida (via the linkbox you can also change the state).
Uncertain Localities: Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey.
Mapping tool with topo quads: To find uncertain counties or localitieshttp://mapper.acme.com
Collector Names: The Essig Museum of Entomology database has lists of collector names and periods of activity for many collectors you will find in Calbug records. http://essigdb.berkeley.edu/query_people.html
Hard-to-read text: Use “Sheen”, the visual webpage filter, for some hard-to-read handwriting written in pencil. (Tip was from the War Diary Zooniverse project) https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/sheen/mopkplcglehjfbedbngcglkmajhflnjk?hl=en-GB
Special symbols: You should be able to find symbols in word or by doing a google search and copy and paste. Here are a few:
– degree symbol for coordinates: °
– plus minus: ±
– fractions: ⅛ ¼ ⅓ ⅜ ½ ⅝ ⅔ ¾ ⅞
– non-English symbols: Ä ä å Å ð ë ğ Ñ ñ õ Ö ö Ü ü Ž ž
The Plant List: Search for scientific names of plants –http://www.theplantlist.org/
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS): http://www.itis.gov/
Essig database (for Calbug): Unsure if you spelled a collector name or species name right? It might also be worth checking similar entries already in the database, http://essigdb.berkeley.edu/.
NfN Discussion threads that this is based on: